COVID-19 & Forbearance Agreements

With new times come new terms. Six months ago we had never heard of Coronavirus or social distancing.  Now, we hear those terms so often we look forward to the day we never hear them again. Another term we’re starting hear in the wake of the Coronavirus outbreak is forbearance. Prior to COVID-19, most of us probably didn’t know what forbearance meant. Unfortunately, the financial impact of COVID-19 will likely cause many businesses and individuals to seek forbearance agreements with their creditors.

Forbearance means the action of refraining from exercising a legal right, especially enforcing the payment of a debt. A forbearance agreement is an agreement between a lender and a borrower (or a creditor and a debtor) to temporarily suspend the payments owed by the borrower to the lender. Forbearance agreements are often entered into in lieu of the lender filing a lawsuit to foreclose a mortgage or trust deed.

Borrowers, or debtors, adversely affected by the Coronavirus outbreak may need to enter into forbearance agreements with their creditors if unable to make their payments when due. Pursuant to the CARES Act, persons who have a federally backed mortgage can seek forbearance of their mortgage payments for up to nearly a year (they can initially apply for 180 days and then seek a 180 day extension). Many mortgages are federally backed. Interested persons should contact their loan servicer to determine if their mortgage is federally backed.  Even if a mortgage isn’t federally backed, given the widespread financial impact of the outbreak, there is a fair chance the lender has some forbearance or other options available.

Technically, a forbearance agreement is not a loan modification. Forbearance generally means that the lender agrees to forebear from taking action to enforce the borrower’s failure to make a payment when due and triggering the default clause under the agreement for payment failure. Persons facing the inability to pay their debts as a result of the outbreak need to consider promptly seeking forbearance or a modification of the payment terms of the loan or debt. Whether the parties enter into a true forbearance agreement or a loan modification, there are a number of considerations and competing interests.

While it is incumbent on the debtor to seek forbearance or a loan modification if the outbreak is or will likely cause them to not be able to make payments when due, a forbearance agreement can actually benefit both parties. For the borrower, one of the primary benefits of a forbearance agreement is that it gives them some breathing room with regard to their cash flow, cash on hand and long term ability to pay their debts. A forbearance agreement gives the debtor some time to figure out their next steps.

From the debtor’s perspective, it is important to recognize that a forbearance agreement can actually also benefit the lender. While the lender would obviously prefer to receive payment in a timely manner, a forbearance agreement can add certainty to the lender and improve the likelihood and level of repayment of the debt.  It also allows the lender to avoid having to enforce the remedies under their contract, such as foreclosure. Enforcement of contract remedies can be expensive and time consuming. Furthermore, some remedies, such as evictions and foreclosures, have been prohibited by the government during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Some things to keep in mind with regard to forbearance agreements.

Forbearance Period: A forbearance agreement should include language with regard to how long the lender agrees to forebear the debt without taking action to enforce the terms of the agreement (e.g., accelerate the debt for failure to pay in a timely manner) and how much additional time, if any, the debtor might get to repay the debt. In most cases, the balance owed by the debtor continues to accrue interest while the debtor is not making payments pursuant to a forbearance agreement. The forbearance period may be for a specified time period or tied to the occurrence of a specified event (e.g., the governor of Oregon lifting the moratorium prohibiting on-premises consumption of food and drink and gatherings of more than 25 people).

Conditions: The lender will likely require the borrower (and, if applicable, personal guarantors) to meet specific conditions before the forbearance agreement becomes effective. Such conditions might include: providing financial statements; additional reporting requirements; an updated business plan; efforts to seek financial assistance or loans through available government and related programs; and the payment of a forbearance fee and the costs incurred by the lender while negotiating the forbearance agreement.

Acknowledgments and Reaffirmations: The lender will likely require the borrower, in consideration of the forbearance, to make acknowledgements regarding the validity and amount of the underlying debt. The reaffirmations usually also include language that the lender is not waiving the right to exercise their remedies under the contract in the event of future defaults by the borrower. Guarantors are generally also required to re-affirm their guaranties.

COVID-19 has adversely impacted the ability of many persons to pay their debts when due. Adversely impacted debtors should promptly inform their lender if they are encountering financial difficulties. Creditors understand that the outbreak has had a huge financial impact on many businesses and individuals. It is generally in the interest of the creditor to work with their debtors. Negotiated solutions between the parties, memorialized by a forbearance agreement or loan modification, are usually better than engaging in litigation, particularly given the current prohibitions and the fact that the courts are not operating at full capacity and won’t be for some time.

If you need any assistance with regard to a forbearance agreement or modification of a loan, whether you are a creditor or a debtor, please reach out to our team. We’re here to help you during the Coronavirus pandemic.

Van M. White III has more than 20 years of experience as a lawyer in Oregon and Washington. Van has been a partner at Samuels Yoelin Kantor since 2001 and has served on the firm’s management committee since 2010.

Stimulus Checks Incorrectly Sent to Deceased People – What To Do Now?

The recently passed CARES Act included many provisions to provide economic aid, relief and stimulus for America. As a part of the new law many Americans will receive stimulus checks officially called Economic Impact Payments.

US citizens and permanent residents qualify to receive $1,200 for single and head of household filers, and $2,400 for married couple filer, with an adjusted gross income (AGI) up to $75,000 for individuals who file as single or married filing separately, $112,500 for head of household filers, and $150,000 for married couples filing joint returns. Reduced amounts will be sent to those who have a higher AGI. However, those with an AGI over $99,001 for single or married filing jointly, $136,501 for head of household, and $198,001 for married filing jointly, will not receive any money.

Recently, I have received calls from my clients who have received checks from the IRS that are written to family members who have died. And my clients want to know if they can keep the money. The answer is no.

The IRS has been incorrectly sending money to deceased individuals. The stimulus checks are only meant for people who are still alive. If you receive a check from the US Treasury payable to someone who is deceased, then you need to send back the entire payment. The exception is if the check is made to joint filers and a spouse is still alive. Then only a portion of the payment needs to be returned.

If you received a paper check, then write “Void” in the endorsement portion on the back of the check. The IRS requests that you include a note stating that you are returning the check because the person named on the check is deceased. Please do not staple or clip the note to the check, and don’t bend the check. Then send the voided check and note back to the IRS. If you live in Oregon or Washington, the address to use is Fresno IRS, 5045 E. Butler Ave., Fresno, CA 93888.

If you have already cashed the check, then send the IRS a cashiers check or money order for the same amount as deposited. The check should be made payable to the U.S. Treasury. And then on the memo line write 2020EIP and the deceased person’s social security number. Then follow the same procedures as addressed in the previous paragraph.

For more information, please see: https://www.irs.gov/coronavirus/economic-impact-payment-information-center#more

If you have more questions or want to talk about the CARES act or other estate planning issues, contact one of our estate planning attorneys.

Anastasia (Stacie) Yu Meisner is a member of the SYK Estate Planners practice. Her practice focuses on estate planning, mediation, probate, trust and estate administration. In addition, she also works with guardianships and conservatorships, as well as business transactions and formation.

POLST & COVID-19: Are Your Legal Documents Current & Do They Reflect Your Wishes?

Dr. Susan Tolle, Chair of the Oregon POLST Coalition, created a 5-minute video that guides viewers through a POLST form (Portable Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment). This standardized, single page, brightly colored form can be vital for healthcare providers in managing fragile or seriously ill patients towards the end of life, and particularly helpful for managing one’s wishes for intensive care treatment and assisted breathing with ventilators.

It is important to note that not everyone needs a POLST – it is for the seriously ill. An Advance Directive is another standardized, but more complex, legal document that also sets forth your wishes for medical care and life-sustaining treatments and/or designates a Health Care Representative to express those wishes to healthcare providers, should you be unable to speak for yourself. Everyone should have a properly executed Advance Directive, for the unforeseen, but not everyone, necessarily needs a POLST; it depends on your medical condition.

Victoria Blachly: SYK Attorney

Victoria Blachly is a partner at SYK, and an experienced fiduciary litigator that works with many elderly clients, cases and causes. She is also a proud Board Member for the Oregon Alzheimer’s Association Chapter.

Guardians & COVID-19: Facts You Should Know

The National Guardianship Association, National Center for State Courts, and ABA Commission on Law and Aging created a helpful “FAQs for Guardians about the COVID-19 Pandemic”.

Things are shifting swiftly, from state to state or facility to facility, so this information about access or contact with vulnerable adults and access with the courts will provide some guidance.

Victoria Blachly: SYK Attorney

Victoria Blachly is a partner at SYK, and an experienced fiduciary litigator that works with many elderly clients, cases and causes. She is also a proud Board Member for the Oregon Alzheimer’s Association Chapter.

The Pandemic Makes the Power of Attorney More Important Than Ever

“Have a financial Power of Attorney. And a health care Power of Attorney, also known as an Advance Directive. These legal documents are terrific tools to help navigate the typical administrative run around that we all face”.

Do you have a loved one living in a care facility and due to Covid-19 they are not able to leave? Or are you self-isolating in your home and unable to run your typical errands? Are any of your or your loved one’s financial or medical needs being unmet due to the Coronavirus? If so, you’re not alone.

I recently received a call from a daughter whose elderly mother was stuck in a care facility.  Both the daughter and her mother were befuddled because all of the mother’s financial affairs were on hold.

As a general practice the daughter would organize her mother’s monthly bills and go through them with her. She would help her mother write checks to pay her doctor co-pays, her cable bill, etc. Also the daughter would join her mother on calls to manage her mother’s banking and investments needs.

Now the daughter can’t visit her mother. And both women wanted to know if they would be in trouble with bill collectors or at the very least pay a lot of late fees if they were not able to timely address mom’s financial affairs.

My advice in these types of situations is to have a financial Power of Attorney. And a health care Power of Attorney, also known as an Advance Directive. These legal documents are terrific tools to help navigate the typical administrative run around that we all face with banks, doctor’s offices, investment companies, etc.

With a financial Power of Attorney the mother could officially grant her daughter with the legal authority to manage and help with her financial affairs.  And the daughter would be able to write the checks and make calls for her mother.  With an Advance Directive it would be much easier for the daughter to talk with her mother’s doctor and other health care providers.

Even though we may never have another Covid-19 pandemic that impacts everyone, life happens and you never know when you may not be able to address your affairs because of an illness or injury.  We never know when we may find ourselves or our loved ones in one of these situations. So it is incredibly important for all adults to have both a financial and medical Power of Attorney naming someone to speak on their behalf and manage their affairs.

These are documents that are not just important for older adults. They are important for young adults too. I have seen a number of young adults injured in accidents and unable to manage their own affairs. Many headaches and delays could be avoided with a little advance planning.

If you have more questions or want to talk about a Power of Attorney or other estate planning issues, contact one of our estate planning attorneys.

Anastasia (Stacie) Yu Meisner is a member of the SYK Estate Planners practice. Her practice focuses on estate planning, mediation, probate, trust and estate administration. In addition, she also works with guardianships and conservatorships, as well as business transactions and formation. 

Retirement Plan Participant May Elect Loan Repayment Deferrals

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act of 2020 does more than aid small businesses. In addition to the PPP loans that received the bulk of the media attention, the CARES Act authorizes qualified retirement plan sponsors to amend retirement plans (401(a), 401(k), 403(b) and government plans) to help participants (qualified employees) who have been adversely economically impacted by the Coronavirus by allowing the deferral of loan payments. Once such an amendment is implemented by a plan sponsor, participants who have outstanding loan amounts from the qualified retirement plan may elect to defer loan payments for up to one year (with interest accruing) between now and December 31, 2020.

The retirement plan participant may elect loan repayment deferrals if they meet one of the following criteria:

  1. They are diagnosed with the Virus by a test approved by the CDC;
  2. Their spouse or dependent is diagnosed with the Virus by a test approved by the CDC; or
  3. They experienced adverse financial consequences as a result of being quarantined, being furloughed or laid off or having work hours reduced due to such virus or disease, being unable to work due to lack of child care due to such virus or disease, closing or reducing hours of a business owned or operated by the individual due to such virus or disease, or other factors as determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

During any deferral period, interest would continue to accrue. Once loan payments recommence, the accrued interest is included in loan calculations to determine the new payment amounts.  The date of the final payment is adjusted by the length of time deferred. The Plan Sponsor may rely on an employee’s certification that the employee satisfies the condition.

Eric Wieland puts his mastery of tax law and sharp attention to detail to work in his practice. He focuses on the areas of Estate Planning, Business Planning, Taxation, Qualified Retirement Plans, ERISA Compliance, and Trust and Estate Administration. The belief that no two clients are alike and no set of legal circumstances or objectives are the same ­ is at the heart of his specialized, individual approach.

Where’s My Stimulus Check?

The IRS sent out the first wave of stimulus payments this  past week to around 80 million Americans. In order to speed up the process, the IRS has prioritized sending payments to Americans that have previously submitted their direct deposit information with the agency. Those that have not authorized a direct deposit account with the IRS will receive their stimulus payment in paper check form. However, the IRS estimates that it only has the capacity to mail out 5 million checks a week, so many Americans will not receive their payment until likely August or later.

Based on the income level eligibility requirements, at least 90{45ef85514356201a9665f05d22c09675e96dde607afc20c57d108fe109b047b6} of Americans should qualify for at least some amount of stimulus payment. If you think you should have received your stimulus payment by now, here are several reasons why the IRS has delayed your payment.

Social Security Recipients

For recipients of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI), the IRS has announced that payments will appear alongside normal monthly benefits. Recipients are not required to file a tax return to receive payment and will receive their stimulus payment in the same format (direct deposit or paper check) of their normally received benefits.

Direct Deposit Not Authorized

Even if you filed your tax return electronically the last two years, the IRS may still not have direct deposit information saved for you. The IRS has only saved direct deposit information for those that have received a federal refund in 2018 and/or 2019. If you owed the IRS in either of those years, your direct deposit information may no longer be stored. The IRS is not using bank account information it used to withdraw from your account if you owed money. To check if you need to submit your direct deposit information, the IRS has set up a web portal for entering that information and checking on the status of your payment.

Change of Filing Status or Bank Account Information

Even if you received a refund and filed electronically, a change of filing status or a change in your direct deposit account could also delay your stimulus payment. For example, if you got married in 2019 and filed married jointly for the first time, or got divorced in 2019, and filed single for the first time in a while, the IRS may no longer have accurate direct deposit information on record. Similarly, if you changed banks or switched account numbers, the IRS will no longer have correct direct deposit information for you. Using the IRS Get My Payment Portal can verify if the IRS needs updated banking information.

Current Return Still Processing

Though the IRS extended filing of individual federal returns until July 15, 2020, many Americans still made efforts to file their 2019 returns in line with the normal April 15 due date. Due to the shutdown, the IRS has prioritized processing stimulus payments for Americans and has largely slowed down return processing for the next few weeks. Many service centers across the country have also closed entirely. If the IRS has receipt of your 2019 return but has not processed it yet, this may also delay your stimulus payment.

Non-filers

Millions of lower-income Americans who do not normally meet the income thresholds required for filing will need to also contact the IRS. Through use of a separate web portal entitled Non-Filers: Enter Payment Info Here, non-filers will need to confirm their identities and provide bank account information or address information to receive a stimulus payment.

Watch for Fraud

Remember that the IRS will never call you, email you, or otherwise contact you directly for your sensitive personal information. The IRS web portals will require you to enter information such as your social security number, your routing and bank account numbers, and other personal information. Otherwise this information should not be shared through any other method.

Nicholas Rogers - Attorney

Nicholas D. Rogers joins SYK Estate Planning and Taxation practice with a passion for helping individuals, small business and nonprofits. His practice includes a focus on estate planning, federal and state tax controversy, business formation and planning, as well as trust and estate administration.

COVID-19 Federal, State, and Local Prohibitions Against Non-Payment Evictions

Real Estate

“Landlords are temporarily prohibited from filing new eviction actions for nonpayment of rent as a result of COVID-19”

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has encouraged Oregon State Governor Kate Brown to issue a Stay at Home order effective statewide in an effort to curb the spread of the virus. As a result, many individuals are out of work, causing emotional stress and financial hardship.

Federal, state, and local governments have each taken action in an attempt to reduce financial stress on residential and commercial tenants.

Federal Response

On March 27, 2020, President Trump signed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”). In Section 4024, the CARES Act imposed immediate protections for some residential tenants. Specifically, the CARES Act placed a federal eviction moratorium for nonpayment of rent on covered properties. Landlords are temporarily prohibited from filing new eviction actions for nonpayment of rent as a result of COVID-19, as well as prohibited from charging late fees or other penalties for tenants’ nonpayment of rent. It is critical for landlord to review the definition of covered properties, and confer with a knowledgeable attorney is they are unsure whether they own a covered property.

The moratorium took effect immediately on March 27, 2020 and expires July 25, 2020. Landlords, that own covered properties, are prohibited from evicting residential tenants for nonpayment of rent during the entire course of the moratorium. After the moratorium expires, the landlord may take action against non-paying tenants, subject to a federally imposed 30-day notice to vacate. Please note that the CARES Act does not affect evictions unrelated to non-payment.

Oregon Response

On April 1, 2020, Governor Kate Brown issued Executive Order 20-13 (“EO 20-13”). EO 20-13 declared a moratorium on certain terminations of residential rental agreements and non-residential leases.

During this moratorium, any residential or non-residential tenant who is or will be unable to pay the full rent when due under their rental agreement or lease shall notify the landlord as soon as reasonably possible. Additionally, tenants shall make partial rent payments to the extent that they are financially able to do so.

With regard to non-residential tenants, the tenant must provide their landlord, within 30 calendar days of unpaid rent being due, with documentation or other evidence that nonpayment is caused by, in whole or in part, the COVID-19 pandemic. EO 20-13 does not require similar proof for residential tenants.

Consequently, the landlord may not, for reason of nonpayment of rent (which EO 20-13 defines to include evictions without cause), late charges, utility charges, or any other service charge or fee, terminate the tenant’s rental agreement or take any action, judicial or otherwise, relating to an eviction arising under ORS 105.105 through ORS 105.168. Prohibited actions include, without limitation, filing, serving, delivering or acting on any notice, order or writ of termination, or interfere with the tenant’s right to possession of the premises.

The moratorium does not relieve a tenant from paying rent, utility charges, or any other service charges or fees. The moratorium does, however, relieve a tenant from paying for late charges or other penalties arising from nonpayment.

The moratorium began April 1, 2020 and will continue in effect until June 30, 2020, unless terminated sooner by Governor Kate Brown. Any person found to be in violation of EO 20-13 is subject to criminal penalties.

Multnomah County Response

Prior to the announcement of EO 20-13, on March 11, 2020, the Multnomah County Chair signed Executive Order 388 (“EO 388”), declaring an emergency for Multnomah County and announcing a moratorium on residential evictions for nonpayment of rent and rent deferral  in Multnomah County. EO 388 was ratified by the Multnomah County Board of Commissioners on March 19, 2020, and the Multnomah Commissioners adopted Ordinance 1282 putting in effect the County wide eviction moratorium. On April 16, 2020, the Multnomah Commissioners passed Ordinance 1284 that suspended the enforcement of Ordinance 1282, in order to align the County with the Governor’s EO 20-13. Ordinance 1284 continues the six month grace period for residential tenants to repay their unpaid rent, but tenants no longer need to provide proof of the substantial loss of income to their landlords or notify their landlords on or before the day that the rent is due that they are unable to pay rent. The tenants instead need to notify their landlords as soon as reasonably possible that they are unable to pay rent.

Multnomah County Ordinance 1284 does not relieve a tenant of paying rent. The tenant must still pay the missed rent within 6 months after expiration of the emergency; however, no late fees will accrue.

Civil proceedings to enforce Ordinance 1284, may be instituted by Multnomah County or the tenant. A landlord that fails to comply with any of the requirements set forth in Ordinance 1284 shall be subject to appropriate injunctive relief, and for an amount up to 3 times the monthly rent, as well as actual damages, reasonable attorney fees, and costs.

Properties within Multnomah County are subject to both the statewide EO 20-13 moratorium and the Multnomah County Ordinance 1284.

For assistance in determining how your property may be affected by the CARES Act, EO 20-13, and Ordinance 1284, we encourage you to speak with a knowledgeable real estate attorney.

Denise Gorrell draws upon her extensive knowledge of restaurants and the wine industry to inform her real property and commercial law practice. She helps hospitality industry clients navigate complex, important issues such as business formation, real estate agreements, trademarks, OLCC rules and other governmental regulations.

Colleen Munoz

 

Colleen O. Muñoz is a law clerk at and certified law student at SYK who graduated with honors from Lewis & Clark Law School in January 2020. She published a law review article in March 2020 dissecting the categorical approach to contested deportation proceedings.

Treasury Department Releases Additional Guidance on Paycheck Protection Program

On April 8, 2020, the U. S. Treasury Department updated its “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)” guidance on the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) that is being administered by the Small Business Administration (SBA). While this document was previously issued by the Treasury Department, it has been updated to address some of the questions that borrowers and lenders have raised as lenders have been inundated with applications for the forgivable loans under the PPP. Congress is currently considering allocating another $200 to $250 billion to the PPP.

Here of some of the highlights under the FAQs:

  • Computing the $100,000 Cap. For purposes of computing a borrower’s “payroll costs” (which is then multiplied by 2.5 to determine a borrower’s loan amount up to $10 million), the $100,000 cap on an individual’s compensation is limited to “cash compensation,” and does not include employer contributions to defined-benefit or defined-contribution retirement plans (e.g. employer 401(k) contributions), group health care coverage including insurance premiums, and state and local taxes assessed on employee compensation.
  • Vacation, Family Leave, Etc. PPP loans cover payroll costs, including costs for employee vacation, parental, family, medical, and sick leave. However, this does not include qualified sick and family leave wages for which a credit is allowed under the recently passed Families First Coronavirus Response Act.
  • Time frame of Payroll Costs Calculation. In calculating “payroll costs” for purposes of determining a borrower’s loan amount, borrowers can calculate their aggregate payroll costs using data either from the previous 12 months or from calendar year 2019.
  • Independent Contractors. Any amounts that an eligible borrower has paid to an independent contractor or sole proprietor are excluded from the “payroll costs” calculation. However, independent contractors and sole proprietors are themselves eligible to apply for their own PPP loans.
  • Use Gross Wages for Calculation. “Payroll costs” are based upon an employee’s gross compensation (i.e. not after-tax withholdings). However, the employer-side federal payroll taxes imposed on employee’s compensation is excluded from the payroll costs calculation.
  • Spending the PPP Money. For purposes of computing the loan amount that is eligible to be forgiven under PPP, the borrower must spend the loan proceeds within eight weeks beginning on the date “the lender makes the first disbursement of the PPP loan to the borrower.” The SBA has previously indicated that, for purposes of the loan forgiveness requirement, no more that 25{45ef85514356201a9665f05d22c09675e96dde607afc20c57d108fe109b047b6} of the loan proceeds can be used for non-payroll costs permitted under PPP (i.e. rent, interest on mortgage obligations and utility payments).

The FAQs still do not address whether the income allocation to partners in a business taxed as a partnership are included in the payroll costs calculations. Our experience is that lenders have varying interpretations of this issue. Hopefully, more guidance with continue to be provided by the SBA and Treasury Department on this and other issues that have arisen under the PPP.

Michael D. Walker is a business, tax and estate planning attorney who has worked with individuals and small to medium-sized businesses for nearly 30 years. A careful listener, Michael skillfully guides his clients to meet the wide variety of legal challenges they face in our current complex world.

Multnomah County Presiding Judge Issues Child Custody and Parenting Time Orders During COVID 19 Pandemic

Last week we wrote about the State Family Law Advisory Committee (SFLAC) recommendations for custody and parenting time issues that may arise during this COVID 19 pandemic. Since that post, those recommendations have been adopted in a Court Order as of March 27, 2020 issued by Presiding Judge Stephen Bushong and Presiding Family Law Judge Susan Svetkey of the Multnomah County Circuit Court (here is a link to that order). This Order applies to any person who has a court-ordered parenting plan in a Multnomah County Circuit Court case that is still in effect. The Order sets forth parenting time guidelines for parents to follow during this COVID 19 pandemic regarding Summer vacation and other holidays, denial of parenting time, parenting time in public places, supervised parenting time, impact of Governor Brown’s Executive Order regarding travel, safety-related issues, transparency and make up parenting time. We encourage you to review this Order as it may provide useful information and answer some questions you may be having depending on your circumstances.  If you have a current parenting time order from a different county in Oregon, this Order does not apply to you but it may provide you with some guidelines to follow if your court order from a different county does not address these issues. We encourage you to seek legal counsel for any questions you may have about your particular court order. We hope you and your family is staying healthy and safe during this stressful time.

Chris Costantino is committed to helping clients navigate the complex and emotionally challenging territory of family law in their personal lives and family businesses. Her trademark philosophy — love your children, protect your assets, and preserve your legacy — guides her law practice.

Emily Clark Cuellar is a litigator at Samuels Yoelin Kantor. Her practice is centered around families, and her passion is helping families navigate all the various obstacles they may face. Her practice focuses on domestic relations and fiduciary and probate litigation.